Planning is another essential step to the process of PR. Like a wise man once said,”If you fail to come prepared, you come prepared to fail.” Planning will help everyone involved in the project get a closer look at what is expected of each individual and give people a closer look at the overall goal.

From the Textbook “Public Relations: strategies and tactics” by Dennis L. Wilcox and Glenn T. Cameron.

  • After researching, it is important to put all of the data together and plan on how to use it effectively.
  • It should be a strategy to meet the organizations goals.
  • The 9 steps to Management By Objective (MBO) include:
    1. Client/employer objectives
    2. Audience/publics
    3. Audience Objectives
    4. Media Channels
    5. Media Channel Objectives
    6. Sources and Questions
    7. Communication Strategies
    8. Essence of the Message
    9. Nonverbal Support

Program plans involve many elements to ensure that the overall goal is met. These elements may include having a clear understanding of the situation, having a specific and defined audience, providing guidelines of the strategy, and a clear message theme.

  • It is important that all team members know the tactics and activities to be performed.
  • A calendar and time-line are essential to propper planning.
  • A clear budget should be drawn up and reported back to after every transaction throughout the process.
  • Restate the objectives and goals of the firm and the project while planning.
  • Always know that the planning process is never over. At times, many teams may have to “tweak” their plans while performing tasks if something does not turn out the way it was originally intended.

As students we have all learned that research is important. From the third grade we have learned how to use books, the internet, and newspapers as sources for papers. Even in simple conversation with friends it is important to have background information about what you are talking about- or else you may find yourself looking like a fool. For me, I was even required to research topics for my father and present a valid argument if I wanted to attend an event, party, or even sometimes a date (weird, I know).

From the Textbook”Public Relations: strategies and tactics” by Dennis L. Wilcox and Glenn T. Cameron.

Today, research is considered as an integral part of the planning, program development, and evaluation process. Just as in science, there are some standard questions that any researcher should ask.

  • What is the problem?
  • What kind of information is needed?
  • How will the results be used?
  • What specific publics should be researched?
  • Should the firm use in-house or an outside firm?
  • How will the data be reported or applied?
  • How soon will the results be needed?
  • How much will the research cost?

Secondary research is one that most people are familiar with. It involves reviewing data and archives, running customer profiles, and searching databases. Popular search engines include Google and Yahoo. Qualitative research is used to gain insights into how individuals behave, think, and make decisions. It is also used to see how the audience responds to key messages. Quantitative research involves scientifically sampling audiences. Random samples are used so that information is representative of the general population. Questionnaire Construction can be valuable in understanding the public’s opinion or view on different subjects. It is important to be unbiased in the wording of questions (do not have “loaded questions”), keep the questionnaire short, and have appropriate sample size pool of people.

For other tips on research check out Erica Lecono’s article in PRWeek: “Leading the Brand: Solid Research Can Take a Brand to a Whole New Level.”

In our groups on Monday we spoke to each other about the evolution of Public Relations and how it has changed over the years. PR dates back all the way from Pope Gregory XV where he used propaganda in faith. As we moved on to later dates we found that The Boston Tea Party is known as one of the greatest and best known publicity stunts of all time! Moving through the dates we found that indiviaduals started using PR to further themselves in the entertainment industry and politics. The term public relations was not used until the late 1800’s and was first used by the Association of American Railroads, however the act of public relations is centuries old. Teddy Roosevelt was the first president to use press conferences and interviews to gain support from his public. He found that it is important for the people to believe in the decisions that are being made from the government and that the public should be well informed.

We can see with the progression of  PR that the field is becoming more diverse. Now the practice of public relations has about 70% of women, whereas thirty years ago only about 30% of women worked in this area. Women tend to have better listening and communication skills and have moved from lower paying fields such as teaching and nursing to areas of PR.

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